Pre-slaughter Interventions to Reduce Foodborne Illness Caused by Salmonella Dublin: A Thematic Review
The incidence of cattle pathogen, Salmonella Dublin, has increased in the United States in recent years and concurrent foodborne infections in humans have been associated with beef, milk, and cheese consumption. Since treatment for this serovar is complicated by multi-drug resistance, more severe outcomes are likely for those infected. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate pre-harvest interventions that may reduce S. Dublin shedding in cattle at the time of slaughter. A review of the scientific literature observed that, although specific feeds and additives were associated with increased levels of Salmonella shedding, the incidence was decreased through direct fed microbials. Other less studied interventions, such as vaccinating cattle for S. Dublin and bacteriophage therapies, show promise but to date have had limited effects with decreasing Salmonella levels in cattle feces. No single intervention to eliminate Salmonella shedding in cattle feces was identified in this review. Therefore, a more effective strategy may involve a combination of these interventions. Further research with vaccinations and bacteriophage therapies may be warranted to find a solution for decreasing S. Dublin shedding in cattle and, ultimately, foodborne infections in humans.